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PYRAMID Blocks : Laborers used 2.3 million blocks of limestone and granite to build the Great Pyramid of Khufu, which stands 146 meters high, has a 230-meter-square base and weighs about 6.5 million tons. interesting……

The technology behind the Pyramids

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The Ancient Pyramid technology

The ancient pyramids are among the most astonishing structures in the world. Built in ancient times by workers who didn’t have the benefit of modern tools and machinery, they are a constant source of fascination. Most of us think of ancient when pyramids come to mind, but they exist in many parts of the world. Why did the ancients build pyramids? What was their purpose? Is there any special meaning behind the pyramid shape? How were they built without earth-moving or heavy-lift machinery? In this article, we’ll examine pyramids around the world, how they were constructed and who used them.pyramid-10

What is a pyramid?

A pyramid is a geometrical solid with a square base and four equilateral triangular sides, the most structurally stable shape for projects involving large amounts of stone or masonry. Pyramids of various types, sizes and complexities were built in many parts of the ancient world (like Central America, Greece, China and Egypt). In the history of Egypt and China, they were primarily tombs and monuments to kings and leaders. The pyramids of the Mayans and Aztecs of Central America were mainly religious temples, though some of them housed burial chambers.

The Central American pyramids were smaller and sometimes wider than their Egyptian counterparts. These pyramids also took longer to finish — they were often built and modified over hundreds of years, while Egyptian pyramids took a couple of decades to construct. Pyramids in Central America were integrated into Aztec and Mayan cities, whereas Egyptian pyramids were located away from the major cities.

The ancestors of these great structures are the burial tombs found throughout North America and Europe — simple mounds of earth that covered burial chambers. The first tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs were flat, box-shaped buildings called mastabas (Arabic for “bench”). Pharaohs later built grander tombs by adding levels on top of the box to form stepped pyramids. Stepped pyramids are prevalent in Central America. In Mesopotamia, they were called ziggurats.

The Egyptians took pyramid design to new heights, culminating in the constru­ction of the pyramids of Giza in the 26th century B.C. Laborers used 2.3 million blocks of limestone and granite to build the Great Pyramid of Khufu, which stands 146 meters high, has a 230-meter-square base and weighs about 6.5 million tons. A number of pyramids, including the Great Pyramid of Khufu, have survived thousands of years of exposure to the elements, a tribute to the ancient architects, engineers and workers who built them.

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Ancient Technology-Mathematics

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Mathematics is essential in our modern society. From economic models used at Wall Street to Google’s search algorithms and so many things more, mathematics is all around us and stands at the forefront of our scientific knowledge. Ancient mathematics started far before civilization, even before language itself. Most even claim the construction of all the ancient structures across the world could not have been created without the use of some form of advanced mathematical technology.
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The origins of mathematics probably lie in the abstract concepts of numbers and values. Modern studies of animal cognition have shown that these concepts are not unique to humans but can also be found in certain animals such as apes. Mathematical ideas would have been part of everyday life in ancient hunter-gatherer societies, from probable simple comparisons of objects to defining what time of year it was. The idea of the “number” evolving over time is supported by the appearance of certain languages that have preserved the distinction between “one”, “two”, and “many”, but not specifically numbers larger than two.

The oldest known supposed mathematical object is the Lebombo bone that was discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland, Africa and was dated back to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon’s fibula. Other prehistoric artifacts were discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggesting early attempts to quantify time.

The Ishango bone that was found near the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Many scholars think the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known demonstration of sequences of prime numbers or a six month lunar calendar.

In the book “How Mathematics Happened: The First 50,000 Years”, by Peter Rudman, he argues that the development of the concept of prime numbers could only have been created after the concept of division, which he dates to after 10,000 BC, with prime numbers probably not being understood until about 500 BC. Peter Rudman also writes that “no attempt has been made to explain why a tally of something should exhibit multiples of two, prime numbers between 10 and 20, and some numbers that are almost multiples of 10.”

The Ishango bone, according to scholar Alexander Marshack, may have influenced the later development of mathematics in Egypt as, like some entries on the Ishango bone, Egyptian arithmetic also made use of multiplication by 2, however, this is disputed.

Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. It has been claimed that megalithic monuments in England and Scotland, dating from the 3rd millennium BC, incorporate geometric ideas such as circles,ellipses, and Pythagorean triples in their design.

The currently oldest undisputed mathematical usage is in Mesopotamian sources. Thus it took humans at least 45,000 years from the attainment of behavioral modernity and language to develop mathematics as such.

Still much is unknown about the history of mathematics, especially how ancient structures were built with such a high level of precision and detail and without the supposed use of highly advanced mathematics we know today.

Mesopotamian clay tablets dating back to the 4th millennium BC claim their advanced knowledge was given to them by advanced beings they refer to as the Anunnaki (meaning something as “those who Anu sent from heaven to earth”). Maybe new findings of ancient objects can shed more light on how ancient man obtained its advanced knowledge of mathematics.

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The Blueprint

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If you have ever watched a house being built, or if you have ever had an addition put onto an existing house, you know that the standard method of communication is a big piece of paper called a blueprint. Blueprinting is the standard method used to copy large architectural and construction drawings. A blueprint used to consist of white lines on a blue background. A more recent process uses blue lines on a white background.LaBelle_Blueprint

The term “blueprint” is usually used to describe two printing methods, the blueprint and the diazotype.

Blueprinting is the older method, invented in 1842. The drawing to be copied, drawn on translucent paper, is placed against paper sensitized with a mixture of ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide. The sensitized paper is then exposed to light. Where the areas of the sensitized paper are not obscured by the drawing, the light makes the two chemicals react to form blue. The exposed paper is then washed in water. This produces a negative image, with the drawing appearing in white against a dark blue background.

In the diazotype method, the paper is light-sensitized with a mixture of a diazonium salt (used in the manufacture of dyes), a reactant, and an acid that keeps the diazonium salt and the reactant from reacting with each other. The semi-transparent original is placed on top of the sensitized paper, and a copy of the same size as the original is made by direct contact. Light destroys the diazonium salt. Ammonia gas or solution is used as a developer after exposure — it neutralizes the acid and allows the remaining diazonium salt to combine with the reactant to create a blue dye. The chemicals on the paper acquire color only in the areas not exposed to light. This diazotype method produces dark lines on a white background, and is the popular method used today for reproduction of large-format drawings.

The reason people still use blueprints is because it is an inexpensive process. Compared to the cost of creating a large-format copying machine, a diazotype machine is a great bargain.

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Wind Resistance to Sky Scrappers

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In addition to the vertical force of gravity, skyscrapers also have to deal with the horizontal force of wind. Most skyscrapers can easily move several feet in either direction, like a swaying tree, without damaging their structural integrity. The main problem with this horizontal movement is how it affects the people inside. If the building moves a substantial horizontal distance, the occupants will definitely feel it.

The most basic method for controlling horizontal sway is to simply tighten up the structure. At the point where the horizontal girders attach to the vertical column, the construction crew bolts and welds them on the top and bottom, as well as the side. This makes the entire steel super structure move more as one unit, like a pole, as opposed to a flexible skeleton.

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For taller skyscrapers, tighter connections don’t really do the trick. To keep these buildings from swaying heavily, engineers have to construct especially strong cores through the center of the building. In the Burj Kalifa, the Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers from that era, the area around the central elevator shafts is fortified by a sturdy steel truss, braced with diagonal beams. Most recent buildings have one or more concrete cores built into the center of the building.

Making buildings more rigid also braces them against earthquake damage. Basically, the entire building moves with the horizontal vibrations of the earth, so the steel skeleton isn’t twisted and strained. While this helps protect the structure of the skyscraper, it can be pretty rough on the occupants, and it can also cause a lot of damage to lose furniture and equipment. Several companies are developing new technology that will counteract the horizontal movement to dampen the force of vibration. To learn more about these systems, check out How Smart Structures Will Work.

Some buildings already use advanced wind-compensating dampers. The Citicorp Center in New York, for example, uses a tuned mass damper. In this complex system, oil hydraulic systems push a 400-ton concrete weight back and forth on one of the top floors, shifting the weight of the entire building from side to side. A sophisticated computer system carefully monitors how the wind is shifting the building and moves the weight accordingly. Some similar systems shift the building’s weight based on the movement of giant pendulums.

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Functional of Sky scraper

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In the last section, we saw that new iron and steel manufacturing processes opened up the possibility of towering buildings. But this is only half the picture. Before high-rise skyscrapers could become a reality, engineers had to make them practical.

BurjKhalifa

Once you get more than five or six floors, stairs become a fairly inconvenient technology. Skyscrapers would never have worked without the coincident emergence of elevator technology. Ever since the first passenger elevator was installed in New York’s Haughwout Department Store in 1857, elevator shafts have been a major part of skyscraper design. In most skyscrapers, the elevator shafts make up the building’s central core.

Figuring out the elevator structure is a balancing act of sorts. As you add more floors to a building, you increase the building’s occupancy. When you have more people, you obviously need more elevators or the lobby will fill up with people waiting in line. But elevator shafts take up a lot of room, so you lose floor space for every elevator you add. To make more room for people, you have to add more floors. Deciding on the right number of floors and elevators is one of the most important parts of designing a building.

Building safety is also a major consideration in design. Skyscrapers wouldn’t have worked so well without the advent of new fire-resistant building materials in the 1800s. These days, skyscrapers are also outfitted with sophisticated sprinkler equipment that puts out most fires before they spread very far. This is extremely important when you have hundreds of people living and working thousands of feet above a safe exit.

Architects also pay careful attention to the comfort of the building’s occupants. The Empire State Building, for example, was designed so its occupants would always be within 30 feet (ft) of a window. The Comers bank building in Frankfurt, Germany has tranquil indoor garden areas built opposite the building’s office areas, in a climbing spiral structure. A building is only successful when the architects have focused not only on structural stability, but also usability and occupant satisfaction

Giant Girder Grids

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The central support structure of a skyscraper is its steel skeleton. Metal beams are riveted end to end to form vertical columns. At each floor level, these vertical columns are connected to horizontal girder beams. Many buildings also have diagonal beams running between the girders, for extra structural support.

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In this giant three-dimensional grid — called the super structure — all the weight in the building gets transferred directly to the vertical columns. This concentrates the downward force caused by gravity into the relatively small areas where the columns rest at the building’s base. This concentrated force is then spread out in the substructure under the building.

In a typical skyscraper substructure, each vertical column sits on a spread footing. The column rests directly on a cast-iron plate, which sits on top of a grillage. The grillage is basically a stack of horizontal steel beams, lined side-by-side in two or more layers (see diagram, below). The grillage rests on a thick concrete pad poured directly onto the hard clay under the ground. Once the steel is in place, the entire structure is covered with concrete.

This structure expands out lower in the ground, the same way a pyramid expands out as you go down. This distributes the concentrated weight from the columns over a wide surface. Ultimately, the entire weight of the building rests directly on the hard clay material under the earth. In very heavy buildings, the base of the spread footings rest on massive concrete piers that extend all the way down to the earth’s bedrock layer.

One major advantage of the steel skeleton structure is that the outer walls — called the curtain wall — need only to support their own weight. This lets architects open the building up as much as they want, in stark contrast to the thick walls in traditional building construction. In many skyscrapers, especially ones built in the 1950s and ’60s, the curtain walls are made almost entirely of glass, giving the occupants a spectacular view of their city.

Making it Functional

In the last section, we saw that new iron and steel manufacturing processes opened up the possibility of towering buildings. But this is only half the picture. Before high-rise skyscrapers could become a reality, engineers had to make them practical.

Once you get more than five or six floors, stairs become a fairly inconvenient technology. Skyscrapers would never have worked without the coincident emergence of elevator technology. Ever since the first passenger elevator was installed in New York’s Haughwout Department Store in 1857, elevator shafts have been a major part of skyscraper design. In most skyscrapers, the elevator shafts make up the building’s central core.

Figuring out the elevator structure is a balancing act of sorts. As you add more floors to a building, you increase the building’s occupancy. When you have more people, you obviously need more elevators or the lobby will fill up with people waiting in line. But elevator shafts take up a lot of room, so you lose floor space for every elevator you add. To make more room for people, you have to add more floors. Deciding on the right number of floors and elevators is one of the most important parts of designing a building.

Building safety is also a major consideration in design. Skyscrapers wouldn’t have worked so well without the advent of new fire-resistant building materials in the 1800s. These days, skyscrapers are also outfitted with sophisticated sprinkler equipment that puts out most fires before they spread very far. This is extremely important when you have hundreds of people living and working thousands of feet above a safe exit.

Architects also pay careful attention to the comfort of the building’s occupants. The Empire State Building, for example, was designed so its occupants would always be within 30 feet (ft) of a window. The Commerce bank building in Frankfurt, Germany has tranquil indoor garden areas built opposite the building’s office areas, in a climbing spiral structure. A building is only successful when the architects have focused not only on structural stability, but also usability and occupant satisfaction.

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Skyscrapers Working

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Throughout the history of architecture, there has been a continual quest for height. Thousands of workers toiled on the pyramids of ancient Egypt, the cathedrals of Europe and countless other towers, all striving to create something awe-inspiring.

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People build skyscrapers primarily because they are convenient — you can create a lot of real estate out of a relatively small ground area. But ego and grandeur do sometimes play a significant role in the scope of the construction, just as it did in earlier civilizations.

Up until relatively recently, we could only go so high. After a certain point, it just wasn’t feasible to keep building up. In the late 1800s, new technology redefined these limits. Suddenly, it was possible to live and work in colossal towers, hundreds of feet above the ground.

In this article, we’ll look at the innovations that made these incredible structures possible. We’ll examine the main architectural issues involved in keeping skyscrapers up, as well as the design issues involved in making them practical. Finally, we’ll peer into the future of skyscrapers to find out how high we might go.

So, we’ll talk about how skyscrapers defy gravity.

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Fighting Gravity

The main obstacle in building upward is the downward pull of gravity. Imagine carrying a friend on your shoulders. If the person is fairly light, you can support them pretty well by yourself. But if you were to put another person on your friend’s shoulders (build your tower higher), the weight would probably be too much for you to carry alone. To make a tower that is “multiple-people high,” you need more people on the bottom to support the weight of everybody above.

This is how “cheerleader pyramids” work and it’s also how real pyramids and other stone buildings work. There has to be more material at the bottom to support the combined weight of all the material above. Every time you add a new vertical layer, the total force on every point below that layer increases. If you kept increasing the base of a pyramid, you could build it up indefinitely. This becomes infeasible very quickly, of course, since the bottom base takes up too much available land.

In normal buildings made of bricks and mortar, you have to keep thickening the lower walls as you build new upper floors. After you reach a certain height, this is highly impractical. If there’s almost no room on the lower floors, what’s the point in making a tall building?

Using this technology, people didn’t construct many buildings more than 10 stories — it just wasn’t feasible. But in the late 1800s, a number of advancements and circumstances converged, and engineers were able to break the upper limit — and then some. The social circumstances that led to skyscrapers were the growing metropolitan American centers, most notably Chicago. Businesses all wanted their offices near the center of town, but there wasn’t enough space. In these cities, architects needed a way to expand the metropolis upward, rather than outward.

The main technological advancement that made skyscrapers possible was the development of mass iron and steel production. New manufacturing processes made it possible to produce long beams of solid iron. Essentially, this gave architects a whole new set of building blocks to work with. Narrow, relatively lightweight metal beams could support much more weight than the solid brick walls in older buildings, while taking up a fraction of the space. With the advent of the Bessemer process, the first efficient method for mass steel production, architects moved away from iron. Steel, which is even lighter and stronger than iron, made it possible to build even taller buildings.

For Example, Twin Towers or world trade center. I will post detils very clearly in my following artical. keep visiting…

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Tagging the Traffic.

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Tagging

To supplement cell-phone tracking systems like Collocate, transportation agencies are also installing additional electronic toll tag readers along major highways. In some cities where toll booths are common, radio-frequency tags are attached to cars. As cars pass the reader, it detects the tag and subtracts a set amount of money from a prepaid account.

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These radio tags, or transponders, can be used to time vehicles between points in a freeway system. Unlike with a toll booth, drivers would not have to slow down for the reading device. They would merely drive past it. By analyzing a particular car’s time between two points, a computer can determine the car’s location and speed.

These tags and the cell-phone tracking systems will make it almost impossible for someone to travel undetected, which has raised privacy concerns about this new technology. Cell-Loc has said that it would not sell information about motorists’ locations to advertisers. Other companies have said that they are considering selling the information.

 

Caution: Accident Ahead

Once information is detected from cell phones, it has to be disseminated to motorists. In order for drivers to be routed around traffic, they must be informed of how fast the traffic is flowing, if it’s clogged or if there is an incident blocking traffic altogether. This is where the cell-phone service provider comes into the picture. The provider would send this information out to customers.

There are three ways to transmit information to motorists:

Collected information is fed into a large repository that can be accessed via a Web site. A map on the screen would show various roadways in green, yellow and red to indicate free-flowing traffic, slow traffic and clogged traffic, respectively.

Registered users, whose locations are known, are sent customized traffic reports based on the road and direction in which they are traveling. Systems will also advise users of alternate routes around congested areas.

Information is displayed on conventional electronic road signs.

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By getting information to the customers more quickly, developers believe that commuters will have enough time to react to these warnings and find another way around the congested areas. This would be an advance compared to how information is released today, which is primarily through radio or television news reports. By the time the radio and TV report an incident, it’s typically too late for most commuters to act on the information.

Cell phones and other digital devices are as commonplace as cars, so why not combine the two to solve the problem of congested highways? In the next few years, we will learn for ourselves whether these new technologies will make our commute to work easier or if our only hope is to find a way to stay home.